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当前位置:电缆主要由以下4部分组成
电缆主要由以下4部分组成
[来源:http://www.ruanhuashuishebei.net] [作者:aowl] [日期:19-07-08] [浏览次数:]

电缆主要由以下4部分组成。①导电线芯:用高电导率材料(铜或铝)制成。根据敷设使用条件对电缆柔软程度的要求,每根线心可能由单根导线或多根导线绞合而成。②绝缘层:用作电缆的绝缘材料应当具有高的绝缘电阻,高的击穿电场强度,低的介质损耗和低的介电常数。电缆中常用的绝缘材料有油浸纸、聚氯乙烯、聚乙烯、交联聚乙烯、橡皮等。电缆常以绝缘材料分类,例如油浸纸绝缘电缆、聚氯乙烯电缆、交联聚乙烯电缆等。③密封护套:保护绝缘线心免受机械、水分、潮气、化学物品、光等的损伤。对于易受潮的绝缘,一般采用铅或铝挤压密封护套。④保护覆盖层:用以保护密封护套免受机械损伤。一般采用镀锌钢带、钢丝或铜带、铜丝等作为铠甲包绕在护套外(称铠装电缆),铠装层同时起电场屏蔽和防止外界电磁波干扰的作用。为了避免钢带、钢丝受周围媒质的腐蚀,一般在它们外面涂以沥青或包绕浸渍黄麻层或挤压聚乙烯、聚氯乙烯套。
The cable mainly consists of the following four parts. Conductive wire core: made of high conductivity material (copper or aluminium). According to the requirements of laying conditions for cable flexibility, each wire core may be made of a single wire or multiple wires. (2) Insulation layer: The insulation material used for cable should have high insulation resistance, high breakdown electric field strength, low dielectric loss and low dielectric constant. The common insulating materials used in cables are oil-impregnated paper, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, cross-linked polyethylene, rubber and so on. Cables are often classified as insulation materials, such as oil-immersed paper insulated cables, polyvinyl chloride cables, cross-linked polyethylene cables, etc. (3) Sealing sheath: Protect insulating wire core from mechanical, moisture, moisture, chemicals, light and other damage. Lead or aluminium extrusion sealing sheaths are generally used for moisture-prone insulation. (4) Protection Cover: To protect the sealing sheath from mechanical damage. Generally, galvanized steel strip, steel wire or copper strip, copper wire, etc. are used as armor to wrap around the sheath (called armored cable). The armor layer plays the role of electric field shielding and electromagnetic interference prevention. In order to avoid the corrosion of steel strips and steel wires by surrounding media, they are usually coated with asphalt or wrapped with impregnated jute or extruded with polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride.
电缆按其用途可分为电力电缆、通信电缆和控制电缆等。与架空线相比,电缆的优点是线间绝缘距离小,占地空间小,地下敷设而不占地面以上空间,不受周围环境污染影响,送电可靠性高,对人身安全和周围环境干扰小。但造价高,施工、检修均较麻烦,制造也较复杂。因此,电缆多应用于人口密集和电网稠密区及交通拥挤繁忙处;在过江、过河、海底敷设则可避免使用大跨度架空线。在需要避免架空线对通信干扰的地方以及需要考虑美观或避免暴露目标的场合也可采用电缆。
Cables can be divided into power cables, communication cables and control cables according to their uses. Compared with overhead lines, the advantages of cables are small insulation distance between lines, small space occupied, underground laying without occupying space above the ground, not affected by environmental pollution, high reliability of power transmission, and less interference to personal safety and the surrounding environment. But the cost is high, the construction and maintenance are more troublesome, and the manufacture is more complicated. Therefore, cables are mostly used in densely populated areas, densely populated power grids and traffic congestion areas; large-span overhead lines can be avoided in laying across rivers, rivers and seabed. Cables can also be used in places where interference from overhead lines to communications needs to be avoided and where aesthetic considerations or exposure of objects need to be considered.

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